Choi, YS, Ho, CH, Kim, SW, Lindzen, RS (2010). Observational Diagnosis of Cloud Phase in the Winter Antarctic Atmosphere for Parameterizations in Climate Models. ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 27(6), 1233-1245.
The cloud phase composition of cold clouds in the Antarctic atmosphere is explored using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instruments for the period 2000-2006. We used the averaged fraction of liquid-phase clouds out of the total cloud amount at the cloud tops since the value is comparable in the two measurements. MODIS data for the winter months (June, July, and August) reveal liquid cloud fraction out of the total cloud amount significantly decreases with decreasing cloud-top temperature below 0A degrees C. In addition, the CALIOP vertical profiles show that below the ice clouds, low-lying liquid clouds are distributed over similar to 20% of the area. With increasing latitude, the liquid cloud fraction decreases as a function of the local temperature. The MODIS-observed relation between the cloud-top liquid fraction and cloud-top temperature is then applied to evaluate the cloud phase parameterization in climate models, in which condensed cloud water is repartitioned between liquid water and ice on the basis of the grid point temperature. It is found that models assuming overly high cut-offs (a parts per thousand << -40A degrees C) for the separation of ice clouds from mixed-phase clouds may significantly underestimate the liquid cloud fraction in the winter Antarctic atmosphere. Correction of the bias in the liquid cloud fraction would serve to reduce the large uncertainty in cloud radiative effects.