Sreenivas, K, Dwivedi, RS, Singh, AN, Raviprakash, S (2010). Detection of sub-surface waterlogging using Terra-1 MODIS data. JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN SOCIETY OF REMOTE SENSING, 38(1), 119-132.
Waterlogging due to rising ground watertable, being a sub-surface phenomenon, is not amenable to detection by optical remote sensing. Microwave and thermal sensor data have, however, shown some promise in the detection of sub-surface waterlogging. The present study was taken up to evaluate the potential of near-IR, short-wave IR (SWIR) and thermal-IR data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) aboard Terra-1 acquired during day-and-night time postmonsoon data for detection of sub-surface waterlogging. The approach involves retrieval of day-and-night land surface temperature (LST), generation of normalized difference of channel-2 and 6 (ND26); 2 and 7 (ND27); ground truth collection involving concurrent ground water table observations to satellite date of pass, thresholding of normalized differences (NDs) and correlating the NDs with depth of ground water table. Amongst various spectral indices, day and night-time LST difference (DLST) and night-time LST have been found to correlate well with the incidence of waterlogging (water table depth < 2m), followed by normalized difference of band-2 (841-876 nm) and band-7 (2105-2155 nm). The sensitivity of threshold limits for these indices was maximum for DLST followed by ND26 and ND27. Poor accuracy of detecting sub-surface waterlogging with thermal bands during day time is attributed to the non-corresponding of the time of Terra MODIS data acquisitions with thermal maxima of the terrain. Though the ND27 gave better accuracy to detect subsurface waterlogging, it is very sensitive to threshold limits.