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Royer, P, Raut, JC, Ajello, G, Berthier, S, Chazette, P (2010). Synergy between CALIOP and MODIS instruments for aerosol monitoring: application to the Po Valley. ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 3(4), 893-907.

In this study aerosol optical properties are studied over the Po Valley from June 2006 to February 2009 using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations/Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO/CALIOP) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua and Terra. The choice of the Po valley has been driven by the numerous occurrences of pollutant events leading to a mean MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.27 (+/- 0.17) at 550 nm over a large area of similar to 120000 km(2). AOD derived from MODIS, AERONET and CALIOP have been compared. The comparison with AERONET sun-photometers has highlighted an overestimation of AOD from MODIS radiometers of 0.047 for Aqua and 0.088 for Terra. A systematic underestimation of AOD derived from CALIOP Level-2 products has been observed in comparison to Aqua (0.060) and Terra (0.075) MODIS values. Considering those discrepancies a synergistic approach combining CALIOP level-1 data and MODIS AOD has been developed for the first time over land to retrieve the equivalent extinction-to-backscatter ratio at 532 nm (LR). MODIS-derived AOD were indeed used to constrain CALIOP profiles inversion. A significant number of CALIOP level-1 vertical profiles have been averaged (similar to 200 individual laser shots) in the Po Valley, leading to a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) higher than 10 in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which is sufficient to invert the mean lidar profiles. The mean LR (together with the associated variabilities) over the Po Valley retrieved from the coupling between CALIOP/MODIS-Aqua and CALIOP/MODIS-Terra are similar to 78 +/- 22 sr and similar to 86 +/- 27 sr, respectively. The total uncertainty on LR retrieval has been assessed to be similar to 12 sr using a Monte Carlo approach. The mean LR determined from a look-up table through a selection algorithm in CALIOP level 2 operational products (similar to 63 +/- 8 sr) show a good agreement for daytime inversion (70 +/- 11 sr for Aqua and 74 +/- 14 sr for Terra). These values appear close to what is expected for pollution aerosols in an urban area. Contrarily large differences are observed when considering nighttime CALIOP profiles inverted with daytime AOD from MODIS (63 +/- 7 sr for CALIOP level-2 compared with 89 +/- 28 sr for CALIOP/Aqua and 103 +/- 32 sr for CALIOP/Terra synergies). They can be explained by a significant evolution of AOD between lidar and radiometer passing times. In most of cases, the mean aerosol extinction coefficient in the PBL significantly differs between the level-2 operational products and the result CALIPSO/MODIS synergy results. Mean differences of 0.10 km(-1) (similar to 50%) and 0.13 km(-1) (similar to 60%) have indeed been calculated using MODIS-Aqua/CALIOP and MODIS-Terra/CALIOP coupling studies, respectively. Such differences may be due to the identification of the aerosol model by the operational algorithm and thus to the choice of the LR.



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