Bocchiola, D, Groppelli, B (2010). Spatial estimation of snow water equivalent at different dates within the Adamello Park of Italy. COLD REGIONS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 63(3), 97-109.
Spatial estimation of snow water equivalent SWE at six different dates from February 1st to June 1st is tackled using Kriging from a sparse network of 14 snow stakes with density within the Adamello Natural Park of Italy. Therein, SWE is measured at these six dates for the period 1967-2009. Second order statistics of SWE are evaluated and linked to physiographic features. The covariance of the SWE field within the Park is studied, necessary for Kriging, and its regularization provided based upon geomorphic attributes. Seasonal dependence of the covariance of the SWE field is observed, and taken into account for optimal estimation. Then, a Kriging procedure based upon the so obtained covariance fields is developed and cross-validated. The accuracy of Kriging estimates is then compared against that of other commonly adopted methods for spatial interpolation. Kriged SWE maps are then produced at the six dates for two sample years, to demonstrate use of the method. Snow Cover Area SCA from the MODIS satellite is used to constrain Kriging procedure upon snowed areas. The procedure provides well estimated, least variance SWE values and it is relatively simple and fast because it uses only information of physiography of the area. The so obtained maps can be used for spatial estimation of SWE within the investigated region for water availability conjectures, for constraining hydrological models simulating runoff at thaw, for ecological conjectures upon snow cover related species within the Park, and to evaluate snowpack dynamics for avalanche risk assessment. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.