Fu, G, Li, PY, Crompton, JG, Guo, JT, Gao, SH, Zhang, SP (2010). An observational and modeling study of a sea fog event over the Yellow Sea on 1 August 2003. METEOROLOGY AND ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS, 107(4-Mar), 149-159.
A dense sea fog episode that occurred near the coastal city of Qingdao in the Shandong Peninsula of China on 1 August 2003 is investigated by using all of the available observational data and high-resolution modeling results from the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This fog event reduced the horizontal visibility to be less than 60 m in some locations and caused several traffic accidents locally. In this paper, all of the available observational data, including visible satellite imagery of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-9 and MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), objectively reanalyzed Final Analysis (FNL) data issued by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), sounding data at the Qingdao and Dalian stations, and the latest 4.4 version of the RAMS model, were employed to study this sea fog case. We begin with the analyses of the environmental conditions of the sea fog event, including the large-scale conditions, the difference between T (2m) (air temperature at 2 m altitude) and sea surface temperature (SST), and the atmospheric sounding profiles of the two stations. The characteristics of this sea fog event was documented by using visible satellite imagery of GOES-9 and MODIS. In order to better understand the fog formation mechanism, a high-resolution RAMS model of dimensions 4 km x 4 km was designed, which was initialized and validated by FNL data. A 54-h modeling period that started from 18 UTC 31 July 2003 reproduced the main characteristics of this sea fog event. The simulated lower visibility area agreed well with the sea fog area identified from the satellite imagery. It is shown that advection cooling effect plays a significant role in the fog formation.