De Lannoy, GJM, Reichle, RH, Houser, PR, Arsenault, KR, Verhoest, NEC, Pauwels, VRN (2010). Satellite-Scale Snow Water Equivalent Assimilation into a High-Resolution Land Surface Model. JOURNAL OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY, 11(2), 352-369.
Four methods based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) are tested to assimilate coarse-scale (25 km) snow water equivalent (SWE) observations (typical of passive microwave satellite retrievals) into finescale (1 km) land model simulations. Synthetic coarse-scale observations are assimilated directly using an observation operator for mapping between the coarse and fine scales or, alternatively, after disaggregation (regridding) to the finescale model resolution prior to data assimilation. In either case, observations are assimilated either simultaneously or independently for each location. Results indicate that assimilating disaggregated finescale observations independently (method 1D-F1) is less efficient than assimilating a collection of neighboring disaggregated observations (method 3D-Fm). Direct assimilation of coarse-scale observations is superior to a priori disaggregation. Independent assimilation of individual coarse-scale observations (method 3D-C1) can bring the overall mean analyzed field close to the truth, but does not necessarily improve estimates of the finescale structure. There is a clear benefit to simultaneously assimilating multiple coarse-scale observations (method 3D-Cm) even as the entire domain is observed, indicating that underlying spatial error correlations can be exploited to improve SWE estimates. Method 3D-Cm avoids artificial transitions at the coarse observation pixel boundaries and can reduce the RMSE by 60% when compared to the open loop in this study.