Kleynhans, W, Olivier, JC, Wessels, KJ, van den Bergh, F, Salmon, BP, Steenkamp, KC (2010). Improving Land Cover Class Separation Using an Extended Kalman Filter on MODIS NDVI Time-Series Data. IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, 7(2), 381-385.
It is proposed that the normalized difference vegetation index time series derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data can be modeled as a triply (mean, phase, and amplitude) modulated cosine function. Second, a nonlinear extended Kalman filter is developed to estimate the parameters of the modulated cosine function as a function of time. It is shown that the maximum separability of the parameters for natural vegetation and settlement land cover types is better than that of methods based on the fast Fourier transform using data from two study areas in South Africa.