Jain, SK, Goswami, A, Saraf, AK (2010). Assessment of Snowmelt Runoff Using Remote Sensing and Effect of Climate Change on Runoff. WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, 24(9), 1763-1777.
Runoff regimes in Himalayan basins are controlled mainly by melting of snow and ice cover. The air temperature is the principal variable to estimate the importance of the melting of the snow cover when using snowmelt runoff model. Changes in temperature will ultimately affect stream flow and snow/ice melt runoff in particular. Global atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) have been developed to simulate the present climate and used to predict future climatic changes and its effect. These GCMs have certain disadvantages, therefore another simple approach of hypothetical scenarios have been developed and successfully demonstrated in this study to investigate the effect of changes in temperature. Adopted plausible climate scenarios included three temperature scenarios (T + 1, T + 2, T + 3A degrees C). The effect of these changes has been studied on the stream flow which has contribution from snowmelt, rainfall and base flow in the Satluj basin. It was observed that with the increase in temperature there is not much change in total stream flow, but the distribution of stream flow have changed. More snowmelt runoff occurred earlier due to increased snow melting however, reduced in the monsoon months.