Stagakis, S, Markos, N, Sykioti, O, Kyparissis, A (2010). Monitoring canopy biophysical and biochemical parameters in ecosystem scale using satellite hyperspectral imagery: An application on a Phlomis fruticosa Mediterranean ecosystem using multiangular CHRIS/PROBA observations. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, 114(5), 977-994.
This study focuses on the potential of satellite hyperspectral imagery to monitor vegetation biophysical and biochemical characteristics through narrow-band indices and different viewing angles. Hyperspectral images of the CHRIS/PROBA sensor in imaging mode 1 (5 observation angles, 62 bands, 410-1005 nm) were acquired throughout a two-year period for a Mediterranean ecosystem fully covered by the semi-deciduous shrub Phlomis fruticosa. During each acquisition, coincident ecophysiological field measurements were conducted. Leaf area index (LAI), leaf biochemical content (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) and leaf water potential were measured. The hyperspectral images were corrected for coherent noises, cloud and atmosphere, in order to produce ground reflectance images. The reflectance spectrum of each image was used to calculate a variety of vegetation indices (VIs) that are already published in relevant literature. Additionally, all combinations of the 62 bands were used in order to calculate Normalized Difference Spectral Indices (NDSI(x,y)) and Simple Subtraction Indices (SSI(x,y)). The above indices along with raw reflectance and reflectance derivatives were examined for linear relationship with the ground-measured variables and the strongest relationships were determined. It is concluded that higher observation angles are better for the extraction of biochemical indices. The first derivative of the reflectance spectra proved to be very useful in the prediction of all measured variables. In many cases, complex and improved spectral indices that are proposed in the literature do not seem to be more accurate than simple NDSIs Such as NDVI. Even traditional broadband NDVI is proved to be adequate in LAI prediction, while green bands seem also very useful. However, in biochemical estimation narrow bands are necessary. Indices that incorporate red, blue and IR bands, such as PSRI, SIPI and mNDVI presented good performance in chlorophyll estimation, while CRI did not show any relevance to carotenoids and WI was poorly correlated to water potential. Moreover, analyses indicated that it is very important to use a near red-edge band (701 nm) for effective chlorophyll index design. SSIs that incorporate 701 nm with 511 or 605 nm showed best performance in chlorophyll determination. For carotenoid estimation, a band on the edge of carotenoid absorption (511 nm) combined with a red band performed best, while a normalized index of two water absorption bands (945, 971 nm) proved to be an effective water index. Finally, the attempt to investigate stress conditions through pigment ratios resulted in the use of the band centred at 701 nm. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.