Shi, W, Wang, MH (2009). An assessment of the black ocean pixel assumption for MODIS SWIR bands. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, 113(8), 1587-1597.
Recent studies show that an atmospheric correction algorithm using shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands improves satellite-derived ocean color products in turbid coastal waters. In this paper, the black pixel assumption (i.e., zero water-leaving radiance contribution) over the ocean for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) SWIR bands at 1240, 1640, and 2130 run is assessed for various coastal ocean regions. The black pixel assumption is found to be generally valid with the MODIS SWIR bands at 1640 and 2130 nm even for extremely turbid waters. For the MODIS 1240 nm band, however, ocean radiance contribution is generally negligible in mildly turbid waters such as regions along the U.S. east coast, while some slight radiance contributions are observed in extremely turbid waters, e.g., some regions along the China east coast, the estuary of the La Plata River. Particularly, in the Hangzhou Bay, the ocean radiance contribution at the SWIR band 1240 mn results in an overcorrection of atmospheric and surface effects, leading to errors of MODIS-derived normalized water-leaving radiance at the blue reaching similar to 0.5 MW cm(-2) mu m(-1) sr(-1). In addition, we found that, for non-extremely turbid waters, i.e., the ocean contribution at the near-infrared (NIR) band