Galvao, LS, Roberts, DA, Formaggio, AR, Numata, I, Breunig, FM (2009). View angle effects on the discrimination of soybean varieties and on the relationships between vegetation indices and yield using off-nadir Hyperion data. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, 113(4), 846-856.
Imaging spectrometry has the potential to provide improved discrimination of crop types and better estimates of crop yield. Here we investigate the potential of Hyperion to discriminate three Brazilian soybean varieties and to evaluate the relationship between grain yield and 17 narrow-band vegetation indices. Hyperion analysis focused on two datasets acquired from opposite off-nadir viewing directions but similar solar geometry: one acquired on 08 February 2005 (forward scattering) and the other on 14 January 2006 (back scattering). In 2005, the soybean canopies were observed by Hyperion at later reproductive stages than in 2006. Additional Hyperion datasets were not available due to cloud cover. To further examine the impact of viewing geometry within the same season, Hyperion data were complemented by 250 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images (bands I and 2) acquired in consecutive days (05-06 February 2005) with opposite viewing geometries (-42 degrees and +44 degrees, respectively). MODIS data analysis was used to keep reproductive stage as a constant factor while isolating the impact of viewing geometry. For discrimination purposes, multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) was applied over each dataset using surface reflectance values as input variables and a stepwise procedure for band selection. All possible Hyperion band ratios and the 17 narrow-band vegetation indices with soybean grain yield were evaluated across years through Pearson's correlation coefficients and linear regression. MODIS-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Simple Ratio (SR) were evaluated within the same growing season. Results showed that: (1) the three soybean varieties were discriminated with highest accuracy in the back scattering direction, as deduced from MDA classification results from Hyperion and MODIS data; (2) the highest correlation between Hyperion vegetation indices and soybean yield was observed for the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) (r=+0.74) in the back scattering direction and this result was consistent with band ratio analysis: (3) higher Hyperion correlation results were observed in the back scattering direction when compared to the forward scattering image. For the same reproductive stage, stronger shadowing effects were observed over the MODIS red band in the forward scattering direction producing lower and lesser variable reflectance for the sensor. As a result, the relationship between MODIS-derived NDVI and soybean yield improved from the forward (r of +0.21) to the back scattering view (r of +0.60). The same trend was observed for SIR that increased from +0.22 to +0.58. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.