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Bashir, MA, Hata, T, Tanakamaru, H, Abdelhadi, AW, Tada, A (2008). "Satellite-based energy balance model to estimate seasonal evapotranspiration for irrigated sorghum: a case study from the Gezira scheme, Sudan". HYDROLOGY AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES, 12(4), 1129-1139.

The availability of the actual water use from agricultural crops is considered as the key factor for irrigation water management, water resources planning, and water allocation. Traditionally, evapotranspiration (ET) has been calculated in the Gezira scheme as the point of reference with evapotranspiration (ETo) and crop coefficients (k(c)) being derived from actual measurements of soil-water balance. Recently developed, advanced energy balance models assisted in estimating the ET through the remotely sensed data. In this study Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images were used to estimate the spatial distribution of the daily, monthly and seasonal ET for irrigated sorghum in the Gezira scheme, Sudan. The daily ET maps were also used to estimate kc over time and space. Results of the energy balance, based on being remotely sensed, were compared to actual measurements conducted during 2004/05 season. The seasonal actual ET values, obtained from the seven MODIS images for irrigated sorghum, were estimated at 579 mm. The values for remotely sensed kc, derived during the initial mid-season and late-season crop development stages, were 0.62, 0.85, 1.15, and 0.48, respectively. On the other hand, the values for the experimental kc during the pervious mention stages were 0.55, 0.94, 1.21 and 0.65, respectively. The estimated seasonal ET of the sorghum, derived by remotely sensed kc, was 674 mm. The Landsat data and the Free MODIS provided reliable, exhaustive, and consistent information on the water use, relevant for decision support in the Gezira scheme.



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