Tang, B, Li, ZL (2008). Estimation of instantaneous net surface longwave radiation from MODIS cloud-free data. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, 112(9), 3482-3492.
This paper develops a statistical regression method to estimate the instantaneous Downwelling Surface Longwave Radiation (DSLR) for cloud-free skies using only the satellite-based radiances measured at the Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA), and subsequently combines the DSLR with the MODIS land surface temperature/emissivity Products (MOD11_L2) to estimate the instantaneous Net Surface Longwave Radiation (NSLR). The proposed method relates the DSLR directly to the TOA radiances in the MODIS Thermal InfraRed (TIR) channels provided that the terrain altitude and the satellite Viewing Zenith Angle (VZA) are known. The simulation analysis shows that the instantaneous DSLR could be estimated by the proposed method with the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 12.4 W/m(2) for VZA=0 and terrain altitude z=0 km. Similar results are obtained for the other VZAs and altitudes. Considering the MODIS instrumental errors of 0.25 K for the TOA brightness temperatures in channels 28, 33 and 34, and of 0.05 K for channels 29 and 31, and of 0.35 K for channel 36, the overall retrieval accuracy in terms of the RMSE is decreased to 13.1 W/m(2) for the instantaneous DSLR. Moreover, a comparison of MODIS derived DSLR and NSLR are done with the field measurements made at six sites of the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) in the United States for days with cloud-free conditions at the moment of MODIS overpass in 2006. The results show that the bias, RMSE and the square of the correlation coefficient (R-2) between the MODIS derived DSLR with the proposed method and the field measured DSLR are 20.3 W/m(2), 30.1 W/m(2) and 0.91 respectively, and bias=11.7 W/m(2), RMSE=26.1 W/m(2) and R-2=0.94 for NSLR. In addition, the scheme proposed by Bisht et al. [Bisht, G., Venturini, V., Islam, S., & Jiang, L. (2005). Estimation of the net radiation using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for clear-sky days. Remote Sensing of Environment, 97, 52-67], which requires the MODIS atmospheric profile product (MOD07) and also the MODIS land surface temperature/emissivity products (MOD11_L2) as inputs, is Used to estimate the instantaneous DSLR and NSLR for comparison with the field measurements as well as the MODIS derived DSLR and NSLR using our proposed method. The results of the comparisons show that, at least for our cases, our proposed method for estimating DSLR from the MODIS radiances at the TOA and the resultant NSLR gives results comparable to those estimated with Bisht et al.'s scheme [Bisht, G., Venturini, V., Islam, S., & Jiang, L (2005). Estimation of the net radiation using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for clear-sky days. Remote Sensing of Environment, 97, 52-67]. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.