Ichoku, C, Giglio, L, Wooster, MJ, Remer, LA (2008). Global characterization of biomass-burning patterns using satellite measurements of fire radiative energy. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, 112(6), 2950-2962.
Remote sensing is the most practical means of measuring energy release from large open-air biomass burning. Satellite measurement of fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) enables distinction between fires of different strengths. Based on a 1-km resolution fire data acquired globally by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites from 2000 to 2006, instantaneous FRP values ranged between 0.02 MW and 1866 MW, with global daily means ranging between 20 and 40 MW. Regionally, at the Aqua-MODIS afternoon overpass, the mean FRP values for Alaska, Western US, Western Australia, Quebec and the rest of Canada are significantly higher than these global means, with Quebec having the overall highest value of 85 MW. Analysis of regional mean FRP per unit area of land (FRP flux) shows that at peak fire season in certain regions, fires can be responsible for up to 0.2 W/m(2) at peak time of day. Zambia has the highest regional monthly mean FRP flux of similar to 0.045 W/m(2) at peak time of day and season, while the Middle East has the lowest value of similar to 0.0005 W/m(2). A simple scheme based on FRP has been devised to classify fires into five categories, to facilitate fire rating by strength, similar to earthquakes and hurricanes. The scheme uses MODIS measurements of FRP at 1-km resolution as follows: category 1 (< 100 MW), category 2 (100 to < 500 MW), category 3 (500 to < 1000 MW), category 4 (1000 to < 1500 MW), category 5 (2:1500 MW). In most regions of the world, over 90% of fires fall into category 1, while only less than 1% fall into each of categories 3 to 5, although these Proportions may differ significantly from day to day and by season. The frequency of occurrence of the larger fires is region specific, and could not be explained by ecosystem type alone. Time-series analysis of the proportions of higher category fires based on MODIS-measured FRP from 2002 to 2006 does not show any noticeable trend because of the short time period. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.