Schaeffer, BA, Morrison, JM, Kamykowski, D, Feldman, GC, Xie, L, Liu, YY, Sweet, W, McCulloch, A, Banks, S (2008). "Phytoplankton biomass distribution and identification of productive habitats within the Galapagos Marine Reserve by MODIS, a surface acquisition system, and in-situ measurements". REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, 112(6), 3044-3054.
The Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR) is one of the most diverse ecosystems in the world. Phytoplankton are the base of the ecosystem food chain for many higher trophic organisms, so identifying phytoplankton biomass distribution is the first step in understanding the dynamic environment for effective management of the GMR. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and hyperspectral surface acquisition system derived chlorophyll, in-situ chlorophyll fluorescence, nitrate, salinity, and temperature were collected from March 2005 to the onset of a mild El Nino in November 2006. Islands in the eastern GMR, such as San Cristobal and Espanola, are the first to experience impacts of El Nino and southern migration of the Equatorial Front. Productive habitats were defined as surface waters with salinities > 34, temperatures < 24 degrees C, and chlorophyll a > 0.4 mg m(-3). Six temporally variable productive habitats identified were: west of Isabela Island, southwest of Floreana Island, south of Santa Cruz, between Santiago and Santa Cruz Islands, and on the eastern side near San Cristobal Island. Model results coupled with surface acquisition system derived chlorophyll indicated productive habitats may also occur for short periods and at a distance from islands such as when the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) and South Equatorial Current (SEC) collide over the seamounts north of Isabela Island. All productive habitats were related to topographic upwelling from the EUC into surface waters. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.