Van der Woerd, HJ, Pasterkamp, R (2008). HYDROPT: A fast and flexible method to retrieve chlorophyll-a from multispectral satellite observations of optically complex coastal waters. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, 112(4), 1795-1807.
We present a generic innovative algorithm for remote sensing of coastal waters that can deal with a large range of concentrations of chlorophyll-a, SPM and CDOM and their inherent optical properties. The algorithm is based on the exact solutions of the HYDROLIGHT numerical radiative transfer model to support retrieval in optically complex waters with varying sensor wide swath viewing geometry. The algorithm estimates the concentrations by minimizing the difference between observed and modeled reflectance spectra. The use of a look-up table and polynomial interpolation greatly reduces computation time, allowing operational and near-real time processing of large sets of satellite imagery. Because the remote sensing reflectance was tabulated as a function of in-water light absorption and scattering, rather than actual constituents concentrations, the algorithm can be applied with any definition of the specific inherent optical properties of CHL, SPM and CDOM. A statistical measure for the goodness-of-fit and the formal standard errors in the fitted concentrations are provided, thus producing error maps with each thematic chlorophyll image, often lacking in most applications of innovative algorithms. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated for multispectral observations of the North Sea, a shallow coastal sea with large concentration gradients in SPM (due to resuspension) and CDOM (from riverine influx). The standard errors of estimated chlorophyll-a concentrations ranged between 0.5 and 3 (mg to 3) for mean concentrations between 2 and 20 (mg m(-3)), quite acceptable results for these optically complex waters. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.