Negi, HS, Thakur, NK, Nushra, VD (2007). Estimation and validation of snow surface temperature using modis data for snow-avalanche studies in NW-Himalaya. PHOTONIRVACHAK-JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN SOCIETY OF REMOTE SENSING, 35(4), 287-299.
Snow avalanche studies require different snow-meteorological parameters for avalanche forecasting. Snow surface temperature is one of the major parameters, which is responsible for the evolution of snow pack characteristics. In the present paper, the snow surface temperature was estimated using TERRA satellite based - Moderate resolution imaging spectroradionneter (MODIS) sensor for NW-Himalayas. Ground data observed by automatic weather stations (AWS) was used to calibrate the brightness temperature obtained by MODIS thermal bands data into the actual snow surface temperature data through regression analysis. A split window technique has been implemented for the estimation of snow surface temperature. The multi-date satellite derived snow surface temperature was validated with ground data of winter 2004-05 and 2005-06 collected at various observation stations located in different ranges of NW-Himalaya. Good correlations were observed for Upper Himalaya (0.98, 0.98), Middle Himalaya (0.92, 0.96) and Lower Himalaya (0.88, 0.82) for 2004-05 and 2005-06 winter respectively. Further, estimated snow surface temperature was also verified with snow-cover information collected by manned observatories and area delineated by thematic maps of snow surface temperature was validated with the different snow climatic zones of NW-Himalaya.