Cannizzaro, JP, Carder, KL, Chen, FR, Heil, CA, Vargo, GA (2008). "A novel technique for detection of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, in the Gulf of Mexico from remotely sensed ocean color data". CONTINENTAL SHELF RESEARCH, 28(1), 137-158.
Karenia brevis, a toxic dinoflagellate that blooms regularly in the Gulf of Mexico, frequently causes widespread ecological and economic damage and can pose a serious threat to human health. A means for detecting blooms early and monitoring existing blooms that offers high spatial and temporal resolution is desired. Between 1999 and 2001, a large biooptical data set consisting of spectral measurements of remote-sensing reflectance (R-rs(lambda)), absorption (a(lambda)), and backscattering (b(b)(lambda)) along with chlorophyll a concentrations and K. brevis cell counts was collected on the central west Florida shelf (WFS) as part of the Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) and Hyperspectral Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (HyCODE) programs. Reflectance model simulations indicate that absorption due to cellular pigmentation is not responsible for the factor of similar to 3-4 decrease observed in Rrs(lambda) for waters containing greater than 10(4) cells 1(-1) of K brevis. Instead, particulate backscattering is responsible for this decreased reflectivity. Measured particulate backscattering coefficients were significantly lower when K. brevis concentrations exceeded 10(4) cells 1(-1) compared to values measured in high-chlorophyll (> 1.5 mg m(-3)), diatom-dominated waters containing fewer than 10(4) cells 1(-1) of K. brevis. A classification technique for detecting high-chlorophyll, low-backscattering K. brevis blooms is developed. In addition, a method for quantifying chlorophyll concentrations in positively flagged pixels using fluorescence line height (FLH) data obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is introduced. Both techniques are successfully applied to Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and MODIS data acquired in late August 2001 and validated using in situ K brevis cell concentrations. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.