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Allen, RG, Tasumi, M, Trezza, R (2007). Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) - Model. JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING-ASCE, 133(4), 380-394.

Mapping evapotranspiration at high resolution with internalized calibration (METRIC) is a satellite-based image-processing model for calculating evapotranspiration (ET) as a residual of the surface energy balance. METRIC uses as its foundation the pioneering SEBAL energy balance process developed in The Netherlands by Bastiaanssen, where the near-surface temperature gradients are an indexed function of radiometric surface temperature, thereby eliminating the need for absolutely accurate surface temperature and the need for air-temperature measurements. The surface energy balance is internally calibrated using ground-based reference ET to reduce computational biases inherent to remote sensing-based energy balance and to provide congruency with traditional methods for ET. Slope and aspect functions and temperature lapsing are used in applications in mountainous terrain. METRIC algorithms are designed for relatively routine application by trained engineers and other technical professionals who possess a familiarity with energy balance and basic radiation physics. The primary inputs for the model are short-wave and long-wave (thermal) images from a satellite (e.g., Landsat and MODIS), a digital elevation model and ground-based weather data measured within or near the area of interest. ET maps (i.e., images) via METRIC provide the means to quantify ET on a field-by-field basis in terms of both the rate and spatial distribution. METRIC has some significant advantages over many traditional applications of satellite-based energy balance in that its calibration is made using reference ET, rather than the evaporative fraction. The use of reference ET for the extrapolation of instantaneous ET from periods of 24 h and longer compensates for regional advection effects by not tying the evaporative fraction to net radiation, since ET can exceed daily net radiation in many and or semi-arid locations. METRIC has some significant advantages over conventional methods of estimating ET from crop coefficient curves in that neither the crop development stages, nor the specific crop type need to be known with METRIC. In addition, energy balance can detect reduced ET caused by water shortage.



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