Smith, RB, Evans, JP (2007). Orographic precipitation and water vapor fractionation over the southern Andes. JOURNAL OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY, 8(1), 3-19.
The climatological nature of orographic precipitation in the southern Andes between 40 and 48 S is investigated primarily using stable isotope data from streamwater. In addition, four precipitation events are examined using balloon soundings and satellite images. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ( MODIS) images taken during precipitation events reveal complex patterns of upstream open-cell convection over the ocean, stratus and/or convective clouds over the mountains, and sharp leeside clearing and roll convection over the steppe. Using the water vapor bands on MODIS reveals a sharp drop in column water vapor from about 1.4 to 0.7 cm across the mountain range. Seventy-one water samples from streams across the southern Andes provide deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope data to determine the drying ratio (DR) of airstreams crossing the mountain range and to constrain free parameters in a mathematical model of orographic precipitation. From the strong isotope fractionation associated with orographic precipitation, it is estimated that DR is similar to 50%, the highest value yet found for a mountain range. The cloud delay parameters in a high-resolution linear precipitation model were optimized to fit the streamwater isotope data. The model agrees well with the data when the cloud delay time (i.e., elapsed time from condensation to precipitation) is about 1700s. The tuned model is used to discuss the small-scale spatial pattern of precipitation. The isotope data from streams are also compared with data from sapwater. The good agreement suggests that future isotope mapping could be done using trees.