Tie, XX, Brasseur, GP, Zhao, CS, Granier, C, Massie, S, Qin, Y, Wang, PC, Wang, GL, Yang, PC, Richter, A (2006). Chemical characterization of air pollution in Eastern China and the Eastern United States. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, 40(14), 2607-2625.
Satellite data (MODIS, GOME, and MOPITT) together with a chemical transport global model of the atmosphere (MOZART-2) are used to characterize air pollution in Eastern China and the Eastern US to assess the differences between the photochemical conditions in these two regions. Observations show that aerosol concentrations (both fine (radius < 0.5 mu m) and coarse modes (radius > 0.5 mu m)) are higher in Eastern China than in the Eastern US. The NOx concentrations in both regions are substantially higher than in remote regions such as over the oceans (150 compared to 5 (10(14)##cm(-2)) over the Pacific Ocean). The CO concentrations are high in both urbanized areas (30 compared to 10 (10(17)#cm(-2)) over the Pacific Ocean). However, the concentrations of non-methane hydrocarbons from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources are considerably lower in Eastern China than in the Eastern US. As a result, the rate of photochemical ozone production and ozone concentrations during summer is significantly lower in Eastern China (daily averaged concentrations of 40-50 ppbv in summer) than in the Eastern US (daily averaged values of 60-70 ppbv). The analysis also shows that in Eastern China, the O-3 production is mainly due to the oxidation of carbon monoxide (54% of total O-3 production), while, in the Eastern US, the O-3 production is attributed primarily to the oxidation of reactive hydrocarbons (68% of total O-3 production). The results also indicate that biogenic emissions of hydrocarbons contribute substantially to the production of O-3 in the Eastern US. The O-3 production due to the oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons represents approximately one third of total O-3 photochemical production in this region. Measurements of surface ozone in the Eastern US and Eastern China seem to support that the summer ozone production is lower in Eastern China than in the Eastern US. However, additional surface measurements, especially of reactive hydrocarbons and ozone are needed in Eastern China in order to improve the present analysis and to confirm our current conclusions. A sensitivity study shows that with increase in anthropogenic emissions of HCs, the surface ozone concentrations significantly increase in Eastern China, indicating that the increase in the emissions of HCs plays an important role for the enhancement in surface ozone in this region. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.