Loeb, NG, Manalo-Smith, N (2005). Top-of-atmosphere direct radiative effect of aerosols over global oceans from merged CERES and MODIS observations. JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, 18(17), 3506-3526.
The direct radiative effect of aerosols (DREA) is defined as the difference between radiative fluxes in the absence and presence of aerosols. In this study, the direct radiative effect of aerosols is estimated for 46 months (March 2000-December 2003) of merged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra global measurements over ocean. This analysis includes the contribution from clear regions in both clear and partly cloudy CERES footprints. MODIS-CERES narrow-to-broadband regressions are developed to convert clear-sky MODIS narrowband radiances to broadband shortwave (SW) radiances, and CERES clear-sky angular distribution models (ADMs) are used to estimate the corresponding top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes that are needed to determine the DREA. Clear-sky MODIS pixels are identified using two independent cloud masks: (i) the NOAA/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) algorithm that is used for inferring aerosol properties from MODIS on the CERES Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product (NOAA SSF); and (ii) the standard algorithm that is used by the MODIS aerosol group to produce the MODIS aerosol product (MOD04). Over global oceans, direct radiative cooling by aerosols for clear scenes that are identified from MOD04 is estimated to be 40% larger than for clear scenes from NOAA SSF (5.5 compared to 3.8 W m(-2)). Regionally, differences are largest in areas that are affected by dust aerosol, such as oceanic regions that are adjacent to the Sahara and Saudi Arabian deserts, and in northern Pacific Ocean regions that are influenced by dust transported from Asia. The net total-sky (clear and cloudy) DREA is negative (cooling) and is estimated to be -2.0 W m(-2) from MOD04, and -1.6 W m(-2) from NOAA SSF. The DREA is shown to have pronounced seasonal cycles in the Northern Hemisphere and large year-to-year fluctuations near deserts. However, no systematic trend in deseasonalized anomalies of the DREA is observed over the 46-month time series that is considered.