Liang, SL, Stroeve, J, Box, JE (2005). Mapping daily snow/ice shortwave broadband albedo from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): The improved direct retrieval algorithm and validation with Greenland in situ measurement. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 110(D10), D10109.
 Snow/ice albedo is a critical variable in surface energy balance calculations. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ( MODIS) data have been used routinely to provide global land surface albedo. The MODIS algorithm includes atmospheric correction, surface reflectance angular modeling, and narrowband to broadband albedo conversion. In an earlier study, a direct retrieval'' methodology was proposed to calculate instantaneous albedo over snow and ice-covered surfaces directly from top-of-atmosphere (TOA) MODIS reflectance data. The method consists of extensive radiative transfer simulations for a variety of atmospheric and surface snow conditions and links the TOA reflectance with surface broadband albedo through regression analysis. Therefore the direct retrieval algorithm implicitly incorporates in a single step all three procedures used in the standard MODIS surface albedo algorithm. This study presents improvements to the retrieval algorithm including validation with in situ measurements distributed over the Greenland ice sheet. Comparison with surface observations demonstrates that the direct retrieval algorithm can produce very accurate daily snow/ice albedo with mean bias of less than 0.02 and residual standard error of 0.04.