San-Miguel-Ayanz, J, Ravail, N, Kelha, V, Ollero, A (2005). Active fire detection for fire emergency management: Potential and limitations for the operational use of remote sensing. NATURAL HAZARDS, 35(3), 361-376.
The use of the mid-infrared and thermal bands of sensors on board airborne platforms and satellites permits the detection of active fires on the Earth's surface. This application has been available to the fire-fighting community for many years. However, limitations in the fire detection capabilities of the sensors and/or the lack of adequate re-visit frequency have prevented the use of these systems for operational forest fire-fighting. In addition to mobile systems, remote sensors positioned on fixed fire-watch towers have also been used for active fire detection. These instruments are often positioned in strategic look-out places to provide continuous monitoring of the surrounding areas. They locate fires through the detection of either hot spots (areas of increased temperature in comparison to the background) or smoke plumes produced by the fires. This article evaluates the use of existing remote sensing systems for active fire detection, with emphasis on the applicability of these systems for fire emergency management and fire-fighting. Long-range remote sensing devices on board satellites are considered, airborne systems are assessed, and short-range fire detection instruments on fixed ground platforms are reviewed. A short introduction to forthcoming satellite systems, which will be based on the combined use of several small satellites, is presented. The advantages and drawbacks of the different systems are evaluated from a fire management perspective.