Smith, WL, Charlock, TP, Kahn, R, Martins, JV, Remer, LA, Hobbs, PV, Redemann, J, Rutledge, CK (2005). EOS Terra aerosol and radiative flux validation: An overview of the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) experiment. JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 62(4), 903-918.
NASA developed an Earth Observing System (EOS) to study global change and reduce uncertainties associated with aerosols and other key parameters controlling climate. The first EOS satellite, Terra, was launched in December 1999. The Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) field campaign was conducted from 10 July to 2 August 2001 to validate several Terra data products, including aerosol properties and radiative flux profiles derived from three complementary Terra instruments: the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). CERES, MISR, and MODIS are being used to investigate the critical role aerosols play in modulating the radiative heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system. CLAMS' primary objectives are to improve understanding of atmospheric aerosols, to validate and improve the satellite data products, and to test new instruments and measurement concepts. A variety of in situ sampling devices and passive remote sensing instruments were flown on six aircraft to characterize the state of the atmosphere, the composition of atmospheric aerosols, and the associated surface and atmospheric radiation parameters over the U.S. eastern seaboard. Aerosol particulate matter was measured at two ground stations established at Wallops Island, Virginia, and the Chesapeake Lighthouse, the site of an ongoing CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) where well-calibrated radiative fluxes and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) aerosol properties have been measured since 1999. Nine coordinated aircraft missions and numerous additional sorties were flown under a variety of atmospheric conditions and aerosol loadings. On one golden day (17 July 2001), under moderately polluted conditions with midvisible optical depths near 0.5, all six aircraft flew coordinated patterns vertically stacked between 100 and 65 000 It over the COVE site as Terra flew overhead. This overview presents a description of CLAMS objectives, measurements, and sampling strategies. Key results, reported in greater detail in the collection of papers found in this special issue, are also summarized.