Hillger, DW, Clark, JD (2002). Principal component image analysis of MODIS for volcanic ash. Part II: Simulation of current GOES and GOES-M Imagers. JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY, 41(10), 1003-1010.
In Part I of this paper the infrared bands of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were analyzed using principal component image analysis for volcanic ash signals. The analyses performed determined that several of the thermal infrared bands of MODIS contributed significantly to detecting volcanic ash in the cases examined. Most, but not all, of these bands will be included in the next major upgrade to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Imager scheduled for 2012. In Part II, MODIS data for the same volcanic cases examined in Part I (Popocatepetl near Mexico City and Cleveland in the Aleutian Islands) are used to simulate the impact of changes that will occur in spectral bands between current and near-term GOES imagery. The change from the 12.0-mum band to a 13.3-mum band on GOES-M (launched in 2001 and renamed GOES-12) was made to improve cloud-height determinations. However, when GOES-M becomes operational, the change in bands will have a potential negative impact on image products that are heavily utilized for volcanic ash detection. Image products generated from the three GOES infrared bands with the 13.3-mum band substituted for the 12.0-mum band indicate that volcanic ash can be detected but with diminished ability, especially for diffuse ash. For both day and night cases the increased contamination by clouds leads to increased chances of false ash detection.