Minnis, P, Nguyen, L, Doelling, DR, Young, DF, Miller, WF, Kratz, DP (2002). Rapid calibration of operational and research meteorological satellite imagers. Part II: Comparison of infrared channels. JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY, 19(9), 1250-1266.
To establish a more reliable reference instrument for calibration normalization, this paper examines the differences between the various thermal infrared imager channels on a set of research and operational satellites. Mean brightness temperatures from the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and the second Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR-2) on the second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2) are correlated with matched data from the eighth Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-8), the fifth Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS-5), and with each other. VIRS data are also correlated with the Terra satellite's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provisional data as a preliminary assessment of their relative calibrations. As an additional check on their long-term stability, the VIRS data are compared to the broadband longwave radiances of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanners on TRMM. No statistically significant trend in the calibration of any of the three (3.7, 10.8, and 12.0 mum) VIRS thermal channels could be detected from the comparisons with CERES data taken during 1998 and 2000 indicating that the VIRS channels can serve as a reliable reference for intercalibrating satellite imagers. However, a small day-night difference in the VIRS thermal channels detected at very low temperatures should be taken into account. In general, most of the channels agreed to within less than +/-0.7 K over a temperature range between 200 and 300 K. Some of the smaller differences can be explained by spectral differences in the channel response functions. A few larger differences were found at 200 K for some of the channels suggesting some basic calibration differences for lower temperatures. A nearly 3-K bias in the ATSR-2 11-mum channel relative to VIRS and GOES-8 was found at the cold end of the temperature range. The intercalibrations described here are being continued on a routine basis.