Meister, G, Rothkirch, A, Spitzer, H, Bienlein, JK (2001). Large-scale bidirectional reflectance model for urban areas. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, 39(9), 1927-1942.
A bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) model for urban areas for pixel sizes of more than 500 in x 500 in is developed. Possible applications include albedo calculation, improvement of classification, and change detection algorithms, simulated global BRF maps, and refinement of atmospheric correction algorithms. The model combines the BRF effects at several scales (street grid, intermediate-sized objects, and microscale). We present modeling results as well as a comparison with measured data. The basic features of the urban BRF are the hotspot and the independence of its shape from wavelength in the range 450 nm less than or equal to lambda less than or equal to 2300 nm. An analytical function that approximates the model is proposed for easy implementation and fast computation.