Tsay, SC, King, MD, Arnold, GT, Li, JY (1998). Airborne spectral measurements of surface anisotropy during SCAR-B. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 103(D24), 31943-31953.
During the Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) deployment, angular distributions of spectral reflectance for vegetated surfaces and smoke layers were measured using the scanning cloud absorption radiometer (CAR) mounted on the University of Washington C-131A research aircraft. The CAR contains 13 narrowband spectral channels between 0.3 and 2.3 mu m with a 190 degrees scan aperture (5 degrees before zenith to 5 degrees past nadir) and 1 degrees instantaneous field of view. The bidirectional reflectance is obtained by flying a clockwise circular orbit above the surface, resulting in a ground track similar to 3 km in diameter within about 2 min. Although the CAR measurements are contaminated by minor atmospheric effects, results show distinct spectral characteristics for various types of surfaces. Spectral bidirectional reflectances of three simple and well-defined surfaces are presented: cerrado (August 18, 1995) and dense forest (August 25, 1995), both measured in Brazil under nearly clear-sky conditions, and thick smoke layers over dense forest (September 6 and 11, 1995). The bidirectional reflectances of cerrado and dense forest revealed fairly symmetric patterns along the principal plane, with varying maximal strengths and widths spectrally in the backscattering direction. In the shortwave-infrared region the aerosol effect is very small due to low spectral optical depth. Also, these backscattering maxima can be seen on the bidirectional reflectance of smoke layer over dense forest. These detailed measurements of the angular distribution of spectral reflectance can be parameterized by a few independent variables and utilized to retrieve either surface characteristics or aerosol microphysical and optical properties (e.g., size distribution and single-scattering parameters), if proper physical and radiation models are used. The spectral-hemispherical albedo of these surfaces is obtained directly by integrating all angular measurements and is compared with the measured nadir reflectance. Using CAR nadir reflectance as a surrogate for spectral-hemispherical albedo can cause albedos to be underestimated by 10-60%, depending on solar zenith angle.