Lyapustin, A; Martonchik, J; Wang, YJ; Laszlo, I; Korkin, S (2011). Multiangle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC): 1. Radiative transfer basis and look-up tables. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 116, D03210.
This paper describes a radiative transfer basis of the algorithm MAIAC which performs simultaneous retrievals of atmospheric aerosol and bidirectional surface reflectance from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The retrievals are based on an accurate semianalytical solution for the top-of-atmosphere reflectance expressed as an explicit function of three parameters of the Ross-Thick Li-Sparse model of surface bidirectional reflectance. This solution depends on certain functions of atmospheric properties and geometry which are precomputed in the look-up table (LUT). This paper further considers correction of the LUT functions for variations of surface pressure/height and of atmospheric water vapor, which is a common task in the operational remote sensing. It introduces a new analytical method for the water vapor correction of the multiple-scattering path radiance. It also summarizes the few basic principles that provide a high efficiency and accuracy of the LUT-based radiative transfer for the aerosol/surface retrievals and optimize the size of LUT. For example, the single-scattering path radiance is calculated analytically for a given surface pressure and atmospheric water vapor. The same is true for the direct surface-reflected radiance, which along with the single-scattering path radiance largely defines the angular dependence of measurements. For these calculations, the aerosol phase functions and kernels of the surface bidirectional reflectance model are precalculated at a high angular resolution. The other radiative transfer functions depend rather smoothly on angles because of multiple scattering and can be calculated at coarser angular resolution to reduce the LUT size. At the same time, this resolution should be high enough to use the nearest neighbor geometry angles to avoid costly three-dimensional interpolation. The pressure correction is implemented via linear interpolation between two LUTs computed for the standard and reduced pressure levels. A linear mixture and a modified linear mixture methods are used to represent different aerosol types in the aerosol/surface retrievals from several base models of the fine and coarse aerosol fractions. In summary, the developed LUT algorithm allows fast high-accuracy simulations of the outgoing radiance with full variability of the atmospheric and surface bidirectional reflectance properties for the aerosol/surface remote sensing.