Shi, W; Wang, MH; Li, XF; Pichel, WG (2011). Ocean sand ridge signatures in the Bohai Sea observed by satellite ocean color and synthetic aperture radar measurements. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, 115(8), 1926-1934.
Satellite measurements from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua platform are used to study the ocean sand ridges in the eastern Bohai Sea in China. Even though the imaging mechanisms for SAR and MODIS-Aqua remote sensing are different, the sand ridges are shown to have exactly the same patterns in images from both sensors. Therefore, the location, extension and coverage of the ocean sand ridges can be detected and cross-examined by both SAR and MODIS-Aqua observations. Satellite images show quite different sand ridge distribution pattern from the published bathymetry map (based on in situ data) that shows six sand ridges in the area. 10 finger-shaped sand ridges are identified from satellite observations. The tidal-current/sand-ridge interaction driven physical and optical changes are assessed and evaluated. The existence of sand ridges causes enhanced water diffuse attenuation coefficient K(d)(490) and elevated normalized water-leaving radiance at the red and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. The sea surface over the sand ridges experiences significant seasonal variability of water turbidity and shows remarkable differences from nearby ocean regions. During winter, K(d)(490) values are about 2-3 m(-1) over the ridges, while the maximum K(d)(490) in the neighboring oceans is approximately 1.5 m(-1). In summer, the enhancement of the sea surface turbidity is less significant than that which occurs in winter. Published by Elsevier Inc.