Mantas, VM; Pereira, AJSC; Morais, PV (2011). Plumes of discolored water of volcanic origin and possible implications for algal communities. The case of the Home Reef eruption of 2006 (Tonga, Southwest Pacific Ocean). REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, 115(6), 1341-1352.
The Home Reef volcano (Tonga, Southwest Pacific Ocean) erupted in August 2006. Initially a submarine eruption it quickly evolved into a subaerial event upon the formation of an ephemeral island. Remote sensing data from different sensors including MODIS, ASTER. EO-1 ALI and Landsat-7 ETM+ were used to analyze the event, focusing on the plumes of discolored water, ocean chlorophyll-a concentration (OCC) and sea surface temperature. An early classification system for the plumes was devised based on spectral properties and point of origin. Plumes originated at the volcano were named Type-I and those associated to the pumice rafts Type-II. Anomalies in ocean chlorophyll-a concentration, measured using MODIS data, were analyzed and a large bloom, presumably dominated by Trichodesmium sp. was identified. The bloom, which contributed to OCC values 17 times higher than the background, was spatially and temporally coincident with a Type-I plume of discolored water. The OCC increase appears to have been caused by a combined effect of both ocean fertilizations by the subsurface volcanic plume and rising sea surface temperatures. The Home Reef event offers a good candidate for a case of ocean enrichment by a submarine volcano and highlights the need for continuous monitoring of the eruptions even after the end of the explosive, more spectacular stages. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.