Baum, BA; Yang, P; Heymsfield, AJ; Schmitt, CG; Xie, Y; Bansemer, A; Hu, YX; Zhang, ZB (2011). Improvements in Shortwave Bulk Scattering and Absorption Models for the Remote Sensing of Ice Clouds. JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY, 50(5), 1037-1056.
This study summarizes recent improvements in the development of bulk scattering/absorption models at solar wavelengths. The approach combines microphysical measurements from various field campaigns with single-scattering properties for nine habits including droxtals, plates, solid/hollow columns, solid/hollow bullet rosettes, and several types of aggregates. Microphysical measurements are incorporated from a number of recent field campaigns in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. A set of 12 815 particle size distributions is used for which T(cd) <= -40 degrees C. The ice water content in the microphysical data spans six orders of magnitude. For evaluation, a library of ice-particle single-scattering properties is employed for 101 wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.24 mu m. The library includes the full phase matrix as well as properties for smooth, moderately roughened, and severely roughened particles. Habit mixtures are developed for generalized cirrus, midlatitude cirrus, and deep tropical convection. The single-scattering properties are integrated over particle size and wavelength using an assumed habit mixture to develop bulk scattering and absorption properties. In comparison with global Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data, models built with severely roughened particles compare best for all habit mixtures. The assumption of smooth particles provided the largest departure from CALIOP measurements. The use of roughened rather than smooth particles to infer optical thickness and effective diameter from satellite imagery such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) will result in a decrease in optical thickness and an increase in particle size.