Saeed, TM; Al-Dashti, H (2011). Optical and physical characterization of "Iraqi freedom" dust storm, a case study. THEORETICAL AND APPLIED CLIMATOLOGY, 104(2-Jan), 123-137.
Kuwait was exposed to a severe dust storm on 19 March 2003, the eve of operation "Iraqi Freedom". Three days of dust events (19, 26, 27 March) were analyzed for their aerosol optical and physical properties using ground-based and satellite-retrieved measurements. Ground-based measurements of aerosol optical depth (or thickness; AOD or AOT) at 675 nm, tau (657), ngstrom coefficient alpha (936/657), particulate matter of diameter 10 mu m or less, PM(10) (mu g/m(3)), and meteorological parameters were analyzed for March 2003. AOT exceeded 3 for the 3 days of interest and PM(10) concentrations reached as high value as 2,457 mu g/m(3) on 19 March dust storm day. Retrieved aerosol characteristics from space using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) on board Terra and Aqua satellite were examined against ground-based measurements. A strong correlation was found between ground-based measurements of tau (675) and the Terra-MODIS retrieved AOD(550). The synoptic of the dust storm were analyzed and source regions were identified using back trajectory analysis and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index.