Eplee, RE; Sun, JQ; Meister, G; Patt, FS; Xiong, XX; McClain, CR (2011). Cross calibration of SeaWiFS and MODIS using on-orbit observations of the Moon. APPLIED OPTICS, 50(2), 120-133.
Observations of the Moon provide a primary technique for the on-orbit cross calibration of Earth remote sensing instruments. Monthly lunar observations are major components of the on-orbit calibration strategies of SeaWiFS and MODIS. SeaWiFS has collected more than 132 low phase angle and 59 high phase angle lunar observations over 12 years, Terra MODIS has collected more than 82 scheduled and 297 unscheduled lunar observations over nine years, and AquaMODIS has collected more than 61 scheduled and 171 unscheduled lunar observations over seven years. The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group Calibration and Validation Team and the NASA MODIS Characterization Support Team use the USGS RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) photometric model of the Moon to compare these time series of lunar observations over time and varying observing geometries. The cross-calibration results show that Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS agree, band to band, at the 1%-3% level, while SeaWiFS and either MODIS instrument agree at the 3%-8% level. The combined uncertainties of these comparisons are 1.3% for Terra and Aqua MODIS, 1.4% for SeaWiFS and Terra MODIS, and 1.3% for SeaWiFS and Aqua MODIS. Any residual phase dependence in the ROLO model, based on these observations, is less than 1.7% over the phase angle range of -80 degrees to -6 degrees and +5 degrees to +82 degrees. The lunar cross calibration of SeaWiFS, Terra MODIS, and AquaMODIS is consistent with the vicarious calibration of ocean color products for these instruments, with the vicarious gains mitigating the calibration biases for the ocean color bands. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America