Uiboupin, R; Laanemets, J; Sipelgas, L; Raag, L; Lips, I; Buhhalko, N (2012). Monitoring the effect of upwelling on the chlorophyll a distribution in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) using remote sensing and in situ data. OCEANOLOGIA, 54(3), 395-419.
The spatio-temporal variability of chlorophyl a (Chl a) caused by a sequence of upwelling events in the Gulf of Finland in July August 2006 was studied using remote sensing data and field measurements. Spatial distributions of sea surface temperature (SST) and Chl a concentration were examined using MODIS and MEP:IS data respectively. The MERIS data were processed with an algorithm developed by the Free University of Berlin (FUB) for case 2 waters. Evaluation of MEETS Chl a versus in situ Chl a showed good correlation (r(2) = 0.67), but the concentration was underestimated. The linear regression for a 2 h window was applied to calibrate MEM Chl a. The spatio-temporal variability exhibited the clear influence of upwelling events and related filaments on Chl a distribution in the western and central Gulf. The lowest Chl a concentrations were recorded in the upwelled water, especially at the upwelling centres, and the highest concentrations (13 mg m(-3)) were observed about two weeks after the upwelling peak along the northern coast. The areas along the northern coast of upwelled water (4879 km(2)) on the SST map, and increased Chi a (5526 km(2)) two weeks later, were roughly coincident. The effect of upwelling events was weak in the eastern part of the Gulf, where Chl a concentration was relatively consistent throughout this period.