Szilagyi, J; Kovacs, A; Jozsa, J (2012). REMOTE-SENSING BASED GROUNDWATER RECHARGE ESTIMATES IN THE DANUBE-TISZA SAND PLATEAU REGION OF HUNGARY. JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY AND HYDROMECHANICS, 60(1), 64-72.
Mean annual recharge in the Danube-Tisza sand plateau region of Hungary over the 2000-2008 period was estimated at a 1-km spatial resolution as the difference of mean annual precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET). The ET rates were derived from linear transformations of the MODIS daytime land surface temperature (T-s) values with the help of ancillary atmospheric data (air temperature, humidity, and sunshine duration). The groundwater under the sand plateau receives about 75 +/- 50 mm of recharge annually (the plus/minus value is the associated error, resulting from an assumed 5% error in both the P and ET values), which is about 14 +/- 9 % of the regional mean annual P value of 550 mm. The largest continuous region with elevated recharge rates (about 180 +/- 50 mm a(-1) or 30 +/- 8 % of P) occur in the south-western part of the plateau due to more abundant precipitation (around 580 mm a(-1)), while recharge is the smallest (about 40 +/- 40 mm a(-1) or 7 +/- 7 % of P) under forested areas. Typically, lakes, wetlands, river valleys, and certain afforested areas in the north-central part of the region act as discharge areas for groundwater.