Su, H; Wang, YP; Yang, JX (2012). Monitoring the Spatiotemporal Evolution of Sea Ice in the Bohai Sea in the 2009-2010 Winter Combining MODIS and Meteorological Data. ESTUARIES AND COASTS, 35(1), 281-291.
The spatiotemporal evolution of sea ice of Bohai Sea in the 2009-2010 winter was studied by time-series remote sensing data, and real-time meteorological data in combination with cumulative freezing degree days (CFDD). Sea ice acreage was determined using a ratio-threshold segmentation together with visual interpretation of daily MODIS 250 m imagery. We found the sea ice acreage soared to 31,849 km(2) on January 23, covering 40.8% of the Bohai Sea. But on February 12, it reached 26,700 km(2) in Liaodong Bay only, covering almost 90.0% of Liaodong Bay. The rapid formation and expansion of sea ice was caused by continuous cold snaps superimposed on a background of anomalously cold weather. CFDD calculated from surrounding cities highly correlated with sea ice acreage in Liaodong Bay (R-2=0.72) suggesting CFDD is one of the significant controlling factors. Sea ice expansion showed 7 days lag with respect to the lowest temperature from surrounding coastal cities, and it mainly occurred close to land, along the coastline, and gradually expanded from the shore outwards.