Salinas, SV; Chew, BN; Miettinen, J; Campbell, JR; Welton, EJ; Reid, JS; Yu, LYE; Liew, SC (2013). Physical and optical characteristics of the October 2010 haze event over Singapore: A photometric and lidar analysis. ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH, 122, 555-570.
Trans-boundary biomass burning smoke episodes have increased dramatically during the past 20-30 years and have become an annual phenomenon in the South-East-Asia region. On 15th October 2010, elevated levels of fire activity were detected by remote sensing satellites (e.g. MODIS). On the same date, measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at Singapore and Malaysia found high levels of fine mode particles in the local environment. All these observations were indicative of the initial onset of a smoke episode that lasted for several days. In this work, we investigate the temporal evolution of this smoke episode by analyzing the physical and optical properties of smoke particles with the aid of an AERONET Sun photometer, an MPLNet micropulse lidar, and surface PM2.5 measurements. Elevated levels of fire activity coupled with high aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 were observed over a period of nine days. Increased variability of parameters such as aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent number and its fine mode equivalents all indicated high levels of fine particulate presence in the atmosphere. Smoke particle growth due to aging, coagulation and condensation mechanisms was detected during the afternoons and over several days. Retrieved lidar ratios were compatible with the presence of fine particulate within the boundary/aerosol layer. Moreover, retrieved particle size distribution as well as single scattering albedo indicated the prevalence of the fine mode particulate regime as well as particles showing enhanced levels of absorption respectively. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.