Hou, YF; Wang, SX; Zhou, Y; Yan, FL; Zhu, JF (2013). Analysis of the carbon dioxide concentration in the lowest atmospheric layers and the factors affecting China based on satellite observations. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REMOTE SENSING, 34(6), 1981-1994.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas contributing to global climate change. SCIAMACHY on board ENVISAT (launched in 2002) is the first satellite instrument to monitor the changes in CO2 concentration in the lowest atmospheric layers. The temporal and spatial distribution of CO2 (2003-2009) concentration based on SCIAMACHY over China is presented and discussed. It shows an annual increase and a seasonal cycle. The CO2 annual growth rate was about 1.8 ppm year(-1), with the highest value being in spring and the lowest in autumn. The CO2 concentration variation is determined by many complex factors. In this article, we analyse the important factors affecting CO2 variations, with special emphasis on terrestrial ecosystems and energy consumption. Terrestrial ecosystems are an important sink in the global carbon cycle. The relationship between CO2 concentration and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) net primary production (NPP) in 2008 is analysed. CO2 concentration is inversely proportional to NPP both in regions with high-density vegetation and in deserts. The Yunnan province has the highest NPP value and the lowest CO2 concentration, whereas the Takla Makan Desert has the lowest NPP value and the highest CO2 concentration. Energy consumption is the main emission source of atmospheric CO2. CO2 emissions from energy consumption show a steady increase in China since 1980. China's CO2 concentration variation shows a high correlation with energy consumption (coefficient of determination (R-2) > 0.8). The regions with high energy consumption are major industrial regions such as Shandong, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hebei, and Henan.