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Ma, HY; Huang, JX; Zhu, DH; Liu, JM; Su, W; Zhang, C; Fan, JL (2013). Estimating regional winter wheat yield by assimilation of time series of HJ-1 CCD NDVI into WOFOST-ACRM model with Ensemble Kalman Filter. MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTER MODELLING, 58(4-Mar), 753-764.

Abstract
Regional crop yield prediction is a significant component of national food security assessment and food policy making. The crop growth model based on field scale is limited when it is extrapolated to regional scale to estimate crop yield due to the uncertainty of the input parameters. The data assimilation method which combines crop growth model and remotely sensed data has been proven to be the most effective method in regional yield estimation. The methods based on cost function are powerless with crop dynamic growth simulation and state variable dynamic update. However, sequence assimilation method has more advantages to overcome these problems, this paper presents a method of assimilation of time series HJ-1 A/B Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) into the coupled model (e.g. WOrld FOod STudies (WOFOST) crop growth model and A two layer Canopy Reflectance Model (ACRM) radiative transfer mode) for winter wheat yield estimates using Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) at the regional scale. The WOFOST model was selected as the crop growth model and calibrated and validated by the field measured data in order to accurately simulate the state variables and the growing process of winter wheat. The theoretically optimal time series LAI profile was obtained with the EnKF algorithm to reduce the errors which existed in both time series HJ-1 CCD NDVI and WOFOST-ACRM model. Finally, the winter wheat yield at the county level was estimated based on the optimized WOFOST model running on the wheat planting pixel. The experiment illustrates that in the potential mode, the EnKF algorithm has significantly improved the regional winter wheat yield estimates (R-2 = 0.51, RMSE = 775 kg/ha) over the WOFOST simulation without assimilation (R-2 = 0.25, RMSE = 2168 kg/ha) at county level compared to the official statistical yield data. Meanwhile, in the water-limited mode the results showed a high correlation (R-2 = 0.53, RMSE = 3005 kg/ha) with statistical data. In general, our results indicate that EnKF is a reliable optimization method for assimilating remotely sensed data into the crop growth model for predicting regional winter wheat yield. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI:
10.1016/j.mcm.2012.12.028

ISSN:

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