Liu, YB, Hiyama, T, Yamaguchi, Y (2006). Scaling of land surface temperature using satellite data: A case examination on ASTER and MODIS products over a heterogeneous terrain area. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, 105(2), 115-128.

Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in numerous environmental studies. Surface heterogeneity induces uncertainty in pixel-wise LST. Spatial scaling may account for the uncertainty, however, different approaches lead to differences in scaled values. Satellite-retrieved LST may be representative of the pixel-wise LST and useful for scaling analysis, but the limited accuracy of retrieved values adds uncertainty into the scaled values. Based on the Stefan-Boltzmann (S-B) law, this study proposed scaling approaches for LST over flat and relief areas to explore the combined uncertainties in scaling using satellite-retrieved data. To take advantage of simultaneous, multi-resolution observations at coincident nadirs by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), LST products from these two sensors were examined for part of the Loess Plateau in China. 90-m ASTER LST data were scaled up to 1 km using the proposed approaches, and variation in the LST was generally reduced after scaling. Amongst the sources of uncertainties, surface heterogeneity (emissivity) and different scaling approaches resulted in very minor differences, with a maximum difference of 0.2 K for the upscaled LST. Terrain features, taken as an areal weighting factor, had negligible effects on the upscaled value. Limited accuracy of the retrieved LST was the major uncertainty. The overall LST increased 0.6 K on average with correction for terrain-induced angular effect and 0.4 K for both angular and adjacency effects over the study area. Accounting for terrain correction in scaling is necessary for rugged areas. With terrain correction, the upscaled ASTER LST achieved an agreement of -0.1 +/- 1.87 K and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.87 K overall with the 1-km MODIS LST rectified by Wan et al.'s approach [Wan, Z., Zhang, Y., Zhang Q., Li, Z.-L. (2002b), Validation of the land-surface temperature products retrieved from Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradionneter data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 83, 163-1801. Refining the rectification approach resulted in a better agreement of -0.2 +/- 1.57 K and a RMSE of 1.58 K. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.