Christopher, SA, Zhang, JL (2004). Cloud-free shortwave aerosol radiative effect over oceans: Strategies for identifying anthropogenic forcing from Terra satellite measurements. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 31(18), L18101.

Using the Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) data that combines the multi-spectral Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ( MODIS) cloud and aerosol products with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) top of atmosphere broadband radiative fluxes, we first provide observational estimates of the instantaneous cloud-free shortwave aerosol radiative forcing (SWARF) over the global oceans. Different from our previous research, we corrected for both the sample biases and the diurnal cycle of SWARF and the cloud-free diurnally averaged SWARF is - 5.3 +/- 1.7 Wm(-2), a value that is consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, we partition the CERES shortwave flux as a function of MODIS aerosol optical thickness and the fraction of fine mode aerosol to the total aerosol optical depth (eta). Since h is related to particle size and is a good surrogate for aerosol type, we present strategies for estimating the radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols from MODIS and CERES measurements that is important for quantifying the climate forcing of aerosols.