Nakayama, T, Watanabe, M (2004). Simulation of drying phenomena associated with vegetation change caused by invasion of alder (Alnus japonica) in Kushiro Mire. WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, 40(8), W08402.

A new process-based distributed model, the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) integrated catchment-based ecohydrology (NICE) model, was developed. The model includes surface-unsaturated-saturated water processes and assimilates land-surface processes describing the variation in phenology with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ( MODIS) satellite data. The model was applied to the Kushiro River catchment (northern Japan, area of 2204.7 km(2)) with a resolution of 500 m and 8 days averaged vegetation changes. Excellent agreement between simulated and measured values was obtained for soil temperature, soil moisture, groundwater level, and river flow discharge during the 6 month snow-free period, achieved by taking into account vegetation phenology, soil properties, and geological structure. The model explains water cycle change and drying phenomena in the Kushiro Mire associated with vegetation change caused by the increased sediment load due to river channelization and consequently the invasion of alder ( Alnus japonica) into the mire.