Hilker, T; Galvao, LS; Aragao, LEOC; de Moura, YM; do Amaral, CH; Lyapustin, AI; Wu, J; Albert, LP; Ferreira, MJ; Anderson, LO; dos Santos, VAHF; Prohaska, N; Tribuzy, E; Ceron, JVB; Saleska, SR; Wang, YJ; Goncalves, JFD; de Oliveira, RC; Rodrigues, JVFC; Garcia, MN (2017). Vegetation chlorophyll estimates in the Amazon from multi-angle MODIS observations and canopy reflectance model. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATION AND GEOINFORMATION, 58, 278-287.

As a preparatory study for future hyperspectral missions that can measure canopy chemistry, we introduce a novel approach to investigate whether multi-angle Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data can be used to generate a preliminary database with long-term estimates of chlorophyll. MODIS monthly chlorophyll estimates between 2000 and 2015, derived from a fully coupled canopy reflectance model (ProSAIL), were inspected for consistency with eddy covariance fluxes, tower based hyperspectral images and chlorophyll measurements. MODIS chlorophyll estimates from the inverse model showed strong seasonal variations across two flux-tower sites in central and eastern Amazon. Marked increases in chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the early dry season. Remotely sensed chlorophyll concentrations were correlated to field measurements (r(2) = 0.73 and r(2) = 0.98) but the data deviated from the 1:1 line with root mean square errors (RMSE) ranging from 0.355 g cm(-2) (Tapajos tower) to 0.470 g cm(-2) (Manaus tower). The chlorophyll estimates were consistent with flux tower measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP). We also applied ProSAIL to mono-angle hyperspectral observations from a camera installed on a tower to scale modeled chlorophyll pigments to MODIS observations (r(2) = 0.73). Chlorophyll pigment concentrations (Chl(A+B)) were correlated to changes in the amount of young and mature leaf area per month (0.59 <= r(2) <= 0.64). Increases in MODIS observed Chl(A+B) were preceded by increased PAR during the dry season (0.61