Plank, S; Marchese, F; Genzano, N; Nolde, M; Martinis, S (2020). The short life of the volcanic island New Late'iki (Tonga) analyzed by multi-sensor remote sensing data. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 10(1), 22293.

Satellite-based Earth observation plays a key role for monitoring volcanoes, especially those which are located in remote areas and which very often are not observed by a terrestrial monitoring network. In our study we jointly analyzed data from thermal (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MODIS and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite VIIRS), optical (Operational Land Imager and Multispectral Instrument) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (Sentinel-1 and TerraSAR-X) satellite sensors to investigate the mid-October 2019 surtseyan eruption at Late'iki Volcano, located on the Tonga Volcanic Arc. During the eruption, the remains of an older volcanic island formed in 1995 collapsed and a new volcanic island, called New Late'iki was formed. After the 12 days long lasting eruption, we observed a rapid change of the island's shape and size, and an erosion of this newly formed volcanic island, which was reclaimed by the ocean two months after the eruption ceased. This fast erosion of New Late'iki Island is in strong contrast to the over 25 years long survival of the volcanic island formed in 1995.