Anoruo, CM (2020). Space and ground-based remote sensing comparison of seasonal interaction of aerosol-cloud-precipitable water. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, 243, 117864.

The exact aerosols interaction with cloud and precipitable water remains a good area of scientific interest, but remained poorly represented. In using aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) as a satellite-based and Aeronet Robotic Network (AERONET) as ground-based station to estimate this interaction is very essential. However, the seasonal variation of aerosols and its interhemispheric approach has presented more clearly this idea. In this study, an adequate data extraction and management has been placed to determine AODs data gaps and have examined MODIS and AERONET AODs with cloud fraction and precipitable water over Karlsruhe (49.093N, 8.428E) located in Germany (Northern hemisphere) and Skukuza (24.992S, 31.587E) located in South Africa (Southern hemisphere) from the period between 2005 and 2019. An estimated relative bias error values of both AODs data was validated by correlating the results and performing the mean and standard deviation (S.D) analyses. In order to conclude error in AOD values, mot mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were performed. Furthermore, to provide knowledge of major aerosols contributor over both hemispheres, estimation of jet winds to see the zonal and meridional impacts through 7 day kinematic back trajectories at various initial pressures was performed. Additionally, estimated dust surface mass concentrations over both hemispheres using Dust Surface Mass Concentration layer from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2). The result showed 93.76% and 90.89% AOD data falls within expected values over Karlsruhe and Skukuza with corresponding RMSE and MAE of 0.06 +/- 0.81 and 0.04 +/- 0.58. Also, the monsoon season showed more agreement at southern hemisphere, with mean and S.D of 0.42 +/- 0.41. It is therefore concluded that MODIS AOD performance with cloud and precipitable is deeply dependent on geographic terrain. Hence, AERONET AOD gives precise measurement and should be used to validate satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth.