Zhao, HY; Hao, XH; Wang, JA; Li, HY; Huang, GH; Shao, DH; Su, B; Lei, HJ; Hu, XJ (2020). The Spatial-Spectral-Environmental Extraction Endmember Algorithm and Application in the MODIS Fractional Snow Cover Retrieval. REMOTE SENSING, 12(22), 3693.

Endmember extraction is a primary and indispensable component of the spectral mixing analysis model applicated to quantitatively retrieve fractional snow cover (FSC) from satellite observation. In this study, a new endmember extraction algorithm, the spatial-spectral-environmental (SSE) endmember extraction algorithm, is developed, in which spatial, spectral and environmental information are integrated together to automatically extract different types of endmembers from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Then, combining the linear spectral mixture analysis model (LSMA), the SSE endmember extraction algorithm is practically applied to retrieve FSC from standard MODIS surface reflectance products in China. The new algorithm of MODIS FSC retrieval is named as SSEmod. The accuracy of SSEmod is quantitatively validated with 16 higher spatial-resolution FSC maps derived from Landsat 8 binary snow cover maps. Averaged over all regions, the average root-mean-square-error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) are 0.136 and 0.092, respectively. Simultaneously, we also compared the SSEmod with MODImLAB, MODSCAG and MOD10A1. In all regions, the average RMSE of SSEmod is improved by 2.3%, 2.6% and 5.3% compared to MODImLAB for 0.157, MODSCAG for 0.157 and MOD10A1 for 0.189. Therefore, our SSE endmember extraction algorithm is reliable for the MODIS FSC retrieval and may be also promising to apply other similar satellites in view of its accuracy and efficiency.