Gao, B; Gong, HL; Zhou, J; Wang, TX; Liu, YY; Cui, YK (2020). Reconstruction of Spatiotemporally Continuous MODIS-Band Reflectance in East and South Asia from 2012 to 2015. REMOTE SENSING, 12(21), 3674.

To reconstruct Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band reflectance with optimal spatiotemporal continuity, three bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models-the Ross-Thick-Li-Sparse Reciprocal (RTLSR) model, Gao model, and adjusted BF model-were used to retrieve MODIS-band reflectance for cloudy MODIS pixels according to different inversion conditions with a proposed filling algorithm. Then, a spatiotemporally continuous MODIS-band reflectance dataset for most of Asia with more than 98% spatiotemporal coverage was reconstructed from 2012 to 2015. The validation highlighted an evident improvement in filling cloudy MODIS observations; a reasonable spatial distribution, such as in South Asia and Southeast Asia; and acceptable precision for the filled MODIS pixels, with the root mean square error percentage (RMSE%) at 9.7-9.8% and 12-16% for the Gao and adjusted BF models, respectively. In the course of reconstructing the spatiotemporal continuous MODIS-band reflectance, the differences among the three models were discussed further. For a 16-day period with a stable and unchanged land surface, the RTLSR model, as a basic model, accurately derived land surface reflectance (no more than 10% RMSE% for MCD43C1 V006 band 1) and outperformed the other two models. When the inversion period is sufficiently long (e.g., 108 days, 188 days, 268 days, or a full year), the Gao/adjusted BF model provides better precision than the RTLSR model by considering the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil moisture/NDVI as intermediate variables used to adjust the BRDF parameters in real time. The Gao model is optimal when the inversion period is sufficiently long. Based on combining the RTLSR model and Gao/adjusted BF model, we proposed a filling algorithm to derive a dataset of MODIS-band reflectance with optimal spatiotemporal continuity.