Kamali, A; Khosravi, M; Hamidianpour, M (2020). Spatial-temporal analysis of net primary production (NPP) and its relationship with climatic factors in Iran. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, 192(11), 718.

Fluctuations of the climate variables have increased in the recent years. These fluctuations are different in each climatic region. Net primary production (NPP) indicating the plant growth and carbon stabilization over period of time is influenced by these fluctuations. Investigation of the variations in the NPP and analysis of its relationship with the climatic and environmental variables can play a key role in determining the effects of fluctuations of climatic variables on the NPP. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the spatiotemporal changes in the NPP and its correlation with precipitation rate and temperature during 2000-2014 based on the annual NPP estimates determined by the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor and precipitation and temperature data of the synoptic stations in eight climate regions in Iran. The slope of variations in the NPP was calculated in these climatic regions, and then, the changes in the NPP trend at two confidence levels of 95 and 99% were investigated based on the pixel-based method using the Mann-Kendall test. The sensitivity of NPP to climatic variables of temperature and precipitation was also estimated by calculating the correlation. The results showed the significant spatial distribution of NPP in the whole region under study indicating a declining trend from north to south and from west to east directions. The results also indicated the nonlinear variations in the temporal distribution of NPP. The annual mean NPP was found to follow the climatic boundaries in the climatic regions except for climate region 2, and region with the higher annual mean precipitation had higher annual mean NPP. Analysis of the trend by the Mann-Kendall method revealed that 3.2% of the pixels in the whole region followed a certain trend. Among the pixels, 70% of them followed a negative trend and the remaining 30% followed a positive trend. The greatest number of pixels with a certain trend was found in the Gulf of Oman coast climate region so that 93% of the pixels had a positive trend. The lowest number of pixels with a certain trend was observed in eastern Alborz foothills so that 87% of the pixels showed a negative trend. Slope variations of the NPP in the whole region varied from - 35 to 46 gC m(2)year(-1). The eastern plateau had the highest negative slope variations among the climate regions, and the highest positive slope variation of 42% was observed in the highlands climate region. In general, the precipitation rate and temperature showed a mean partial coefficient of 0.22 and 0.02, respectively, and the correlation between the NPP and temperature and precipitation was different in each climatic region. The temperature was negatively correlated with the NPP in four climatic regions with higher annual mean temperatures and in other climatic regions; it had a weak positive correlation. Therefore, the sensitivity of NPP to precipitation and temperature was different in each climatic region.